Indonesians and others have farmed shrimp for centuries, using traditional low-density methods. Indonesian brackish water ponds, called tambaks, can be traced back as far as the 15th century. They used small scale ponds for monoculture or polycultured with other species, such as milkfish, or in rotation with rice, using the rice paddies for shrimp cultures during the dry season, when no rice could be grown. Such cultures often were in coastal areas or on river banks. Mangrove areas were favored because of their abundant natural shrimp. Wild juvenile shrimp were trapped in ponds and reared on naturally occurring organisms in the water until they reached the desired size for harvesting.
Industrial shrimp farming can be traced to the 1930s, when Japanese agrarians spawned and cultivated Kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) for the first time. By the 1960s, a small industry had developed in Japan. Commercial shrimp farming began to grow rapidly in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Technological advances led to more intensive forms of farming, and growing market demand led to worldwide proliferation of shrimp farms, concentrated in tropical and subtropical regions. Growing consumer demand in the early 1980s coincided with faltering wild catches, creating a booming industry. Taiwan was an early adopter and a major producer in the 1980s; its production collapsed beginning in 1988 due to poor management practices and disease. In Thailand, large-scale production expanded rapidly from 1985. In South America, Ecuador pioneered shrimp farming, where it expanded dramatically from 1978. Brazil had been active in shrimp farming since 1974, but trade boomed there only in the 1990s, making the country a major producer within a few years. Today, there are marine shrimp farms in over fifty countries.
Shrimp mature and breed only in a marine habitat. The females lay 50,000 to 1 million eggs, which hatch after some 24 hours into tiny nauplii. These nauplii feed on yolk reserves within their bodies, and then metamorphose into zoeae. Shrimp in this second larval stage feed in the wild on algae, and after a few days, morph again into myses. The myses look akin to tiny shrimp, and feed on algae and zooplankton. After another three to four days, they metamorphose a final time into postlarvae: young shrimp that have adult characteristics. The whole process takes about 12 days from hatching. In the wild, postlarvae then migrate into estuaries, which are rich in nutrients and low in salinity. They migrate back into open waters when they mature. Adult shrimp are benthic animals living primarily on the sea bottom.
Beer Battered Fried Shrimp
Copyright 2011 Christine's Pantry. All rights reserved.
50 large shrimp
1 tablespoon pepper
1 teaspoon salt
1 (12 oz) bottle beer
1 1/2 teaspoon garlic powder
seafood seasoning, to taste (I used creole seasoning)
vegetable oil, for frying
2 1/2 cups baking mix
Heat oil to 350. In large bowl, add baking mix, salt, pepper, garlic powder and beer. Using whisk, mix well. Season shrimp with seafood seasoning. Dip shrimp into batter, then add shrimp to hot oil. Fry shrimp for 4 minutes. Remove shrimp to paper towels, to drain. Enjoy!
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